دراسات حضارية بلغة عربية : يسعى هذا الموقع إلى تقديم معلومات علمية موثقة باللغة الإنجليزية عن كل ما يصدر باللغة العربية عن الحضارة الأوربية، وبذلك يسعى إلى تعريف الباحثين الغير ملمين بالعربية بالجهد العربي في هذا المجال. هذه المعلومات تأتى بالأساس من جمهورية مصر العربية، بدون إغفال أي إسهامات أخرى من الإخوة المتخصصين في الوطن العربي، شرقه وغربه. وكذلك يسعى الموقع إلى تقديم معلومات عن كل ما يصدر بلغات أوربية عن الحضارة العربية ولاسيما أثناء فترات النقل الثلاثة: نقلنا الأول عن اليونان (ما بين القرن الثاني والرابع الهجري/ الثامن والحادي عشر الميلادي)، ونقل الأوربيين عنا بلغتهم اللاتينية (ما بين القرن الخامس والتاسع الهجري/ الثاني عشر إلى الخامس عشر الميلادي) قبل نهضتهم الحديثة، والتي يردون بدايتها إلى القرن الخامس عشر الميلادي، ثم نقلنا الحديث عن الإنجليز والفرنسيين وغيرهم من الأوربيين بداية من الثاني عشر الهجري/القرن الثامن عشر الميلادي وحتى اليوم.

Tuesday, March 29, 2016

Khaled El-Enany is Egypt's New Minsiter of Antiquities

Prof. Dr. Khaled El-Enany, Egypt's New Minister of Antiquities, speaks to Alahram news paper about his priorities in office. See the whole article here: http://english.ahram.org.eg/News/195726.aspx.




IFAO Active Archeological Missions

على موقع المعهد الفرنسى للأثار الشرقية بالمنيرة يوجد صفحة مخصصة لعرض عام حول المواقع الأثرية التي يتواجد فيها بعثات أثرية للمعهد الفرنسى. فى الخريطة التى تراها فى الأسفل يوجد شرح لكل موقع وإلى أى عصر ينتمى هذه الموقع أو تنتمى طبقاته حيث أن الموقع قد يعود إلى فترات تاريخية متعددة. فى الموقع نفسه يوجد أعلى هذه الخريطة سرد كامل بأسماء المواقع التى يتم الحفر فيها حاليا من قبل المعهد الفرنسي. بالضغظ على إسم أحد هذه الأسماء تذهب إلى الصفحة المخصصة لتفاصيل الموقع والتى تجد بها شرح مفصل عن الموقع ، بالفرنسية وبالإنجليزية، لكن ليس بالعربية.  الشئ الوحيد الذى سوف تراه بالعربية هو إسم الموقع. أمر طبيعي فالمعهد الفرنسي معهد تابع للدولة الفرنسية ويتعاون مع العديد من دول العالم . صحيح أنه يتعاون مع وزارة الآثار المصرية التى تعطيه التصاريح ، لكن يبدوا أن فكرة الإصرار على وضع شرح مبسط باللغة العربية ، عن هذه المواقع العديد التى يقوم المعهد بالحفر فيها ، وذلك على إعتبار أن على الأقل مجموعة من ال90مليون مصرى عندهم إهتمام بمثل هذه المواقع و على إعتبار أن اللغة العربية لغة رسمية للدولة التي تعمل بها هذا المعهد ، يبدو أنها فكرة غير واردة فى بال من يعطى هذه التصاريح أو من يطلبها.  


In the Website of the IFAO (http://www.ifao.egnet.net/archeologie/) there is an interactive map showing the current active excavation sites, where the IFAO is collaborating with other international archaeological centers/institutions. It give one a very good overview of the current activities in this regard. If you are interested in knowing more about any site, just go to the above address and click in its name to see all the available information about it, both in french and English (but not in Arabic, only the name of the site is given in Arabic).




Monday, March 28, 2016

Cairo Papyri Checklist

Cairo Checklist is a short name of the “Checklist of the Egyptian Museum’s Unpublished Greek Papyri” published by Usama Gad on the occasion of the International Seminar on Unpublished Papyri of the Egyptian museum in Cairo, which was organized by the AIP in the years between 2010-2014.


In 2011 our colleague Alain Martin, has accepted kindly to publish the first version of the Checklist in the website of the International Society of Papyrologists, see herehttp://www.ulb.ac.be/assoc/aip/cairo.pdf.


In 2016 the author of the checklist uploaded to his blog Papyrology in Egypt a second version of this checklist, which has been kept unpublished in his Computer since February 2014, promising to update this second version as soon as possible.


From now on, there will be no pdf-release of this checklist. The checklist, after being updated, was turned into a blog in the hope that someday this will be  develop it into a website of the Cairo papyri, both published and unpublished.

To see the new blog go here https://cairopapyrichecklist.wordpress.com/

Eurocentrism again: The case of Sappho Papyrus


I am not providing here any new evidences about the Sappho’s papyrus, but my main concern is to give a short notice of an aspect, which I have talked about earlier i.e. Eurocentrism in Papyrology.

Here the time of discovery of Sappho’s Papyrus is a crucial point. I know that a lot have been said about the time of discovery of this piece ((to learn all the story read here: http://www.livescience.com/49543-sappho-new-poems-discovery.html), especially with regard to the turmoil that the 25th of January’s revolution as well as the Arabic spring, brought to the region and the whole world. Nonetheless, I do think that all the expressed views, up till now, are very much concentrating on Europe and the reaction within this continent. I see it from another perspective again. It is important in this regard to refer to the very simple fact that the revolution/Arab spring has brought, not only “turmoil”, but also “the important question of modern Egyptians’/Arab’s identity” into the region, and consequently to this modern-day world, after this legitimate question has been buried for centuries by our dictators and the world order, to which they used to attach themselves very well.  If our dictators have benefited a lot from the eurocentric narrative of the supremacy of the European Civilization, and consequently the supremacy of its creators, i.e. the Europeans, over any other human in the planet, it is now unacceptable to the Egyptian/Arab mind, to sallow this narrative any more. We are now not only fighting dictators/ counter-revolutions/criminals, who are exploiting our history/religion/countries for their own benefits, but also the discourse/narratives they use/used to legitimize every crime they committed/commit to us. One of these main crimes is the crime of accepting the eurocentric/dictatoric/colonialistic view that “you do not understand”, or more precisely using it, not only in their speeches, but also as a main component of their governing policy.


We do(or among us there are now specialized people who) really understand now that a single artifact/papyrus is a piece of our identity, so that we expect from its editor(s), who ever she/he/they is/are, to respect us and provide us with clear-cut answers about every aspect of this piece, especially how it left our country and come to be in the possession of “the private owner” he refers to. We could respect your interest in the text, but you should also - in return - respect our ethical/legal/cultural and legitimate question “did this cultural artifact leave our country legally or illegally?”.

It is really a very hard and critical question in the same time, not only because these information is hard to get, but also because in this moment the editor/s is/are confronted with the question “should I publish this piece, whose provenance/provenience unknown/uncertain or simply to ignore it as well as the text/significance it bears?”. I know that this question, in case the artifact offered to you contains an unknown text or a new discovery, appears to be hard to be answered by some scholars, but for others, who knows how we suffer, not only economically but also culturally, from looting and illegal excavations, a simple “no, I will not be involved in such trade/uncertainties.” ends the dilemma.  The case of Sappho papyrus is still not closed and many questions about its  acquisition are still open. Yes we may be much clearer now about many details concerning its provenance, thanks off course to the editor who provided us with more details about is provenance, than what was provided in its first edition in the ZPE (to know what we have learned so far about the acquisition history of this particular piece see Roberta Mazza summary and comments here: http://tinyurl.com/hlsgd3b),  but my main concern here, as stated above,  is the general question of the time of its discovery (2011) and its connection what is going now in Egypt and elsewhere in the Arab World and consequently in the whole world.  

Consequently,  in order to understand why a simple question like this causes - to some scholars - this perplexity, a decent reflection/discussion about prevailing traditions of publishing artifacts, as well as their cultural and historical origins in the field, is more than welcome. I think it is the duty of the people who are mostly affected by this kind of practises i.e. Egyptians/Arabs, to open up such a discussion and insist on their legal as well as cultural rights in this regard.

It is a well-known fact that every discipline has its own set of traditions/ethics in dealing with the main material that is the focus of its research. E.g. in the case of medicine, we do have the medical ethics and very strict regulations/laws in dealing with the human body. I wonder what, in the case of Archaeology in general and papyrology in particular, the ethics in dealing with artifacts/papyri/texts are. Important also to ask “what is the ethics/traditions that tie the editor/s and publisher/s with the people whose artifacts he/she/they are publishing?”.   As a papyrologist, I surely know about the resolutions/recommendations of the American Society of Papyrologists (ASP:http://tebtunis.berkeley.edu/ASPresolution.pdf) and of the International Society of Papyrologists (AIP:http://www.ulb.ac.be/assoc/aip/workingparty.pdf). As an Egyptian papyrologist, I take these resolutions/recommendations as a good step to address these questions and a start point that needs to be both re-visited and further developed, but I am however unsatisfied with their formulations, as well as, the results they have brought into the field since their ratification/adaptation by the respective societies. I have expressed myself earlier with regards the formulations of these resolutions, with a minimal representations of Egyptian specialists, and the insistence on them that the problem of papyrology in Egypt, is an Egyptian problem, that has to be dealt with in Egypt, because Egypt represents  “a special case” of the lack of national collection management policies. I will continue to investigate, research and to take about this, but for the moment, I will concentrate on the present notice about “how I see the case of Sappho Papyrus in this whole picture?”. The case of this piece is very important in this regard, simply because it was discovered, after the ratifications/adaptation of such resolutions/recommendations and most importantly in a crucial time in our modern history i.e. the 25th of January revolution in Egypt and the Arab spring in the Middle East.

It just shocks my mind when I just try to imagine that a scholar, after these incidents, would be interested in a text - whatever this text is - more than he would be interested in the human beings, who scarified themselves to protect these artifacts/pieces during the revolution. I have participated and I am still involved in both incidents; i.e. the revolution and the discussion going on about the discovery of this piece, its edition and publication. When not so many people are interested in Sappho, who in this planet did not see the Egyptian human chain, which surrounded the Egyptian Museum in Cairo? They did so because they know that these artifacts belongs culturally and legally to them. They did so because they know that these artifact are “part of their history”, which in its return “part of our human history”. The only explanation I could now provide to the question; how could a scholar do something like this?” is that this scholar “does not consider that this Sappho papyrus belongs to these people, neither he sees it as “part of their history”.  Most probably he sees it as “part of the European history”, as has been expressed by ancient scholars praising the contribution of papyrology to ancient history. By ancient history, they meant “ancient European history”, whither they were taking about documentary texts like tax receipts or literary pieces like Sappho or any other texts that are published with exclusively “modern European languages” .

This explanation is confirmed, at least of my own point of view, from most of the obsolete publications I have ever read in this field. This scholar who lives in the present time, still adopt the same old narrative/discourse of “the ignorant Egyptians”. When I read such words in the obsolete publication, I can hardly sallow it. Yes, I can understand what Ulrich Wilcken in his introduction of the monumental publication of the Ptolemaic texts „Urkunden der Ptolemäerzeit“ UPZ I, Papyri aus Unterägypten. Berlin—Leipzig 1927, about the ignorance of the natives and their unawareness of what these texts are (see this image below). What I cannot understand and/or accept, however, is the fact that this eurocentric/colonialistic narrative/discourse of “the modern Egyptians who are ignorant of what are these texts are” still prevails to the very date of writing this notice.



What adds more insult to injury is that when some of these Egyptians decided to devote their time, money and efforts for such a very specialized discipline like papyrology, they are fiercely and illegitimately, as I see it, attacked and all of their endeavors/achievements - collectively as well as individually - ruled out as unsuitable. I am sorry to say these bitter words, but I have not only heard it, read it, or just experienced it, from a few handful people in the field, so that I should be ignoring it, and continue in a fruitful work. No, this discourse prevails to the level that there will be no “fruitful work” between the Egyptians and any European partner, unless this discourse, as well as its historical/legal/cultural/moral basis deconstructed entirely from the world of scholarship. Such a wall existed between the European scholars, but it has been, to a large degree, deconstructed through the good offices of many sharp-minded scholars in the different fields, who wanted to separate politics from science. I remember in this regard “amicitia papyrolgogorum”. This expression, according to the website of the International Society of Payrologists (AIP), “… appears to derive from a lecture given by Leopold Wenger (1874-1953) at the closing session of the IIIrd International Congress of Papyrology in Munich on the evening of 7 September 1933”.  A time when Europe was recovering from the First World War, just to start the Second. I do not know how many Egyptians were part of this deal, but what I know for sure is that, with few exceptions in the field, I have been, and still to the moment of writing this notice, fiercely and illegitimately attacked, ruled out as “unsuitable” and thrown with the same cliché, which I read in the obsolete publication “you do not understand”.  

The very simple fact that whatever I will bring in this field will be ruled out, by some, as unsuitable or to be ignored, makes my efforts to bring/say anything as useless as nothing or at the best “ranting”, as long as, this “Pride and Prejudice” prevails. I know that I am not ranting; I know what I am saying; as an Egyptian, wherever you are, whoever you are and whenever you are, you will be confronted with the same cliché; “you do not understand”.

The Egyptians now are not the very same people, whom Wilcken described. They can read, write, and bring their voices to every corner of the universe, not only in Arabic, but also in English, German and with whatever language/tools they are master or capable of.  Yes, the main concern, of both the editor(s) and the publisher(s), was to publish the text(s) itself/themselves and let it/them appears to the world, who is interested in this kind of texts and who understand them. Neither modern Egypt nor modern Egyptians were, of course, included in this view of the world, otherwise they would have respected them and provided them with clear-cut answers about provenance, owner and the time of discovery of each and every single piece. The impression I got from my readings of obsolete publications, which in many cases are still valid in the field, is that; these papyri/texts were “saved from the hands of the ignorants, brought to the hands of the experts, and published to the mind of those who understand !”.  I am aware that most of the colleagues are not using the same discourse, and eventually also the same obsolete readings !, in their introductions and/or publication of the texts, but I am aware also that this view is to an overwhelming degree mainstream.

Finally, I simply say and see that the ethics/traditions of the past 100 years or more of papyrology provide explanations, about the provenance, provenience, and time of discovery, readings, and interest of the texts that belong to the past more than they belong to the present or the future. They also provide views about modern Egyptians, whither papyrologists or lay, that in the most cases to be considered, at least in their origins prejudiced, colonialistic and eurocentric discourse/narrative which need corrections/new reading in the manner we do with do with the texts themselves (cf. the BL, SB, and the new readings provided directly using the PE) . The persistence of such narratives/discourse will eventually drive the main source country i.e. Egypt, represented by its senior and junior papyrologists, away further and further from its European neighbors, bringing no advancement in the field, as long as these unsatisfactory explanations and bitter views are handed over from generations to the other, and we tolerate no critic/revision/corrections/discussion about their persistence in the field.


to be continued....

My personal prespective on the Eurocentricism in Papyrology

Prof. Paul Schubert of Universités de Genève has shared in Papylist an interesting article in support of papyrology written by Prof. Dr. Stefan Rebenich of the Universität Bern. The piece appeared in the Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Here is a link to read it:http://www.nzz.ch/feuilleton/der-stoff-auf-dem-die-ueberlieferung-lebt-1.18634635. Below is my personal prespctive not to the article itself, but to the whole question of the Eurocentricity in Papyrology.

Thanks, Prof. Schubert, for sharing this interesting article with us. It is indeed a very focused overview of papyrology. It's last paragraph asks explicitly the community to grant more support for this discipline, which faces, as all the fields of Altertumswissenschaften, the danger of extension. I suppose we need more and more of such articles to appear in the public media, in order to gain much more support and appreciation to our work. But let me direct the attention to two remarks,from my own Egyptian-Arabic prespictives, on this kind of very welcomed contributions asking for the support and the appreciation of our field from the society in a digital age.

I, as well as many (I suppose) in the Non-European world, have read this piece. The first thing to notice is that it is very eurocentric. With all due respect to the writer, I think this piece belongs to the past more than to the present or the future of papyrology. It speaks about the European past, as if these papyri were found in Europe! Except for Herculaneum papyri, most of not all of the other pieces of papyri were found in Egypt, as we all know. Generally speaking, most if not all the artifacts attesting ancient Greek (language and culture) come from countries situated in the so called "east" and now either part of the Arabic or the islamic world. So why to speak exclusively of European past? Maybe because most of the discovered papyri are written in ancient Greek. Yes, modern Greek is a European langauage and Greece is a European country, but again this doesn't make ancient Greek a monopoly for the modern Greek state and/or other European states. I myself see it as a common past for both east and west ( if this dichotomy betwen us really correct or exists). Speaking about the other, it is not secret that modern Arabic speaking countries have also a history with this particular language, especially in philosophy and science. Avicenna and Avirroes are the most prominent examples in this regard. I agree that the Greek literature was not part of medieval Arabic, but now it is part of modern Arabic. Taha Hussein and Cairo university are the pioneers in this regard. My alam mater Ain-Shams university provides studies in (Greek) papyrolgy on the levels of MA and PhD since the year of my birth (1978).Homer's Iliad is available to the Arabic reader in Arabic verse (since 100 years) and in prose (since few years). So I don't think that keeping this eurocentric tone and identification of a field that goes beyond the geographical boundaries of its raw materials as well as its main knowledge-production centers would do good to its future survival.

The same also applies to the total ignorance of any mention of Arabic papyri. The piece speaks of papyrology as if it is exclusively Greek. It ignores the fact that the very collection that the colleague mentions is one of the largest in Arabic materials. Yes, the piece is written by an ancient historian not by a medievalist, but after all he is a historian who talks to the public audience in Europe. Edward Gibbon in his famous work about the Roman empire was speaking also to European audience ( even before the EU), but he didn't in any way neglect the other. On the contrary he devoted chapters to the emerging Arabic-islamic neighbors. It is another age now and these neighbors are now not only neighbors, but some of them became European citizens too. Every one lives in Europe knows that there are now about 20 millions European Muslim citizens who identify themselves with European identity, but at the same time would be very much interested to any thing related to Islam and/or Arabic. They would also be of course interested in Greek and Latin not as a wall that separate them from their follow European, but as a bridge that connect them with him as well as their (Arabic) ancestors and neighbors. Pragmatically speaking there is a chance that among these millions a person or an institution that is interested in supporting Arabic or/and Greek papyri and papyrology, from this regard, in European universities.

On antoher scale, every one on the planet can read this article including people like me whose mother langauage is Arabic, native country is Egypt, studied Greek language and literature in the university and lives in Europe. I have to tell you frankly that sometimes I found myself perplexed in such situation, where papyri in my home country are either destroyed by people who want to gain some money by selling them to Europe or the States, or controlled by security forces to protect them from these people and accordingly not easily accessible to researcher like me. The dilemma becomes even bigger when these papyri are identified online by the predominant knowledge producing center (in Europe and the Sates) as not part of my national history.To make the situation even worst, all the knowledge are presented online with languages that are not understood by most of the people who are supposed to protect the sites where these papyri (and other artefacts) were found or would be found in the future. Just ask yourself now one last question, what is the result of such tone (identification) and practice. Let me tell you from my personal experience and view, the message delivered to the people in the east through all this. These (papyri and/or) artefacts are not part of your history; it is European. It doesn't have to do with your past, but you could make profit from it and change your present by selling it to the people who care about it. If you were not able to sell it, then destroy it. If someone of your people stood on your way while you sell or destroy these artefacts then kill him. In this I don't (and I don't have the right to) blame any one or excuse any one of his direct responsibility of his own words or actions. I'm just trying to represent the view as I understand it.

I may have gone so far in all this, but I believe this article with its tone and assertions belong to the past of papyrology not to its present or its hoped future, where this field of study, as well as Altertumswissenschaften, gets rid of its eurocentric past and look forward to its real international future, where the one (western, eastern etc.) knows himself, but doesn't ignore the other !

The database of Dar al-Kutub's Numismatic collection

It is not strictly papyrology, but it is very relevant since it concerns a numismatic collection in Egypt. It is also relevant because it has both English and Arabic interfaces, which is a something one wants to see in papyrology. The records have 6,500 numismatic pieces. More about it in English is to be found here:http://enl.numismatics.org/. If you would like to look at the Arabic see here:http://enl.numismatics.org/?lang=ar

Altertumswissenschaften in a Digital Age: Leipzig, 4.-6. November 2015

For the conference's program and abstracts see here:http://www.dh.uni-leipzig.de/wo/dhegypt15/. Below is the poster.

A new project to publish Karanis-Cairo papyri (Cairo-Michigan)

The Association of Egyptian Papyrologists (AEP) announces the inauguration of a project to publish the Karanis-Cairo (Cairo-Michigan) papyri housed in the Egyptian museum in Cairo. Some pictures on the website of the AEP represent the colleagues during their work on the envelopes. Another news announce the donation of restoration's materials to conserve the papyri. No further details is given. See the announcement on the website her: http://www.egypap.org/


Platinum: Papyri and LAtin Texts


Papyri and LAtin Texts: INsights and Updated Methodologies 

From the website of the project (accessed 22.3.2016):

The aim of PLATINUM is to scrutinize Latin texts on papyrus from several points of view in order to highlight their substantial contribution to our knowledge of innovations in ancient Roman literature, language, history, and society, especially in the multilingual and multicultural contexts of the Eastern part of the Empire between the 1st century B.C. and 8th century A.D. The first phase of the project will consist in assembling, updating and publishing critical editions, in order to present a new and more accurate corpus of Latin papyri on an easily accessible online platform. The second phase will be focused on providing the texts with a specific, pluridisciplinary commentary that gives new insights on Roman culture.

for more go to the project website here: http://platinum-erc.it/the-project/

Updated Checklist of the Egyptian Museum's Unpublished Greek Papyri

In 2011 I published the first version of the Checklist of the Egyptian Museum's Unpublished Greek Papyri, for short "Cairo Checklist". My colleague Alain Martin, has accepted kindly to put this in the website of the International Society of Papyrologists,  see here http://www.ulb.ac.be/assoc/aip/cairo.pdf.

Since then I have been updating this checklist regularly, but when I became very busy with my PhD by 2014, I stopped working on it. I think it is worthwhile to publish it now in my bog, in order to make it available to all my colleagues who wants to keep track of the Egyptian Museum's unpublished as well as published pieces. This updated version is of 2014, see here https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B_OYtJoqV3YtX0J3c0lrOTM5bUU/view?usp=sharing

It is a work in progress, as stated in the checklist, so if any one has any additions, corrections, or comments, please send them to me in my email : usamaligad@gmail.com